About Babasaheb Dr.B.R. Ambedkar

Popularly known as Babasaheb, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar is best remembered for his role as Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution. His visionary charter guarantees socio-economic equality for all (“Right to Equality & Right against Exploitation”), religious tolerance and secularism (“Right to Freedom of Religion”) and equally importantly, the “Right to Live with Human Dignity”. Together these vouchsafe legal protections for “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” regardless of a person’s caste, religion, gender or ideological inclination. Under his able leadership, our Constitution made a drastic departure from the regressive social norms that had been pervasive in India.

However, in hailing Dr. Ambedkar for spearheading this pioneering social charter, we must not limit his contribution to just the Constitution. It is critical that we revisit the remarkable man, and the rich legacy that he has left behind for us.

First, Dr. Ambedkar was one of the foremost intellectuals that India has seen. His seminal analyses of the root causes of socio-economic and political inequities (not just in India, but in the Americas and Europe) and his strategies to overcome these have continued to be a source of inspiration to various struggles throughout the world. His masterful analyses on Indian culture and religion, on labour rights, on macro and development economics etc. continue to radically shape the study of politics, sociology, human rights and economics. Apart from MK Gandhi and J. Nehru, B. Ambedkar is the one of the few public figures from India who is systematically studied in various universities across the world.

Second, Dr. Ambedkar was an institution builder, and he has crafted a number of organisations of modern India. Most of these survive even today, and are critical to the day to day functioning of India. For instance, Dr. Ambedkar’s PhD thesis of 1923 titled “The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India” dealt with centre-state finances in British India between 1833 and 1921. It received international acclaim and went on to influence the federal structures adopted by various nations including India. India’s 14 Finance Commissions, which address problems of vertical and horizontal imbalances in finances, are an outcome of this seminal thesis.

Dr. Ambedkar was also inextricably connected with the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). RBI was created on the basis of guidelines he presented to the “Royal Commission on Indian Currency & Finance” in 1925 and his book titled “The Problem of the Rupee- Its Problems and Its Solution”.

Similarly, Dr. Ambedkar was almost single handedly responsible for establishing the Central Technical Power Board, the National Power Grid System and the Central Water Irrigation and Navigation Commission. He also played an important role in the establishment of the Damodar Valley project, Hirakud project and Sone river project.

Third, B. Ambedkar was a champion of labour rights at a time when the concept of workers’ rights did not exist. In India, much before other nations even started thinking about instituting just and fair conditions for workers, Dr. Ambedkar successfully led the struggle for reducing work from 12 hours a day to 08 hours in 1942. He also vehemently (and successfully) protested against the “Black Bill” which the colonial government was using to suppress workers’ strikes.

His commitment to labour rights is also visible in Article 19 (c) of our Constitution which guarantees the fundamental right to form associations or unions.

Fourth, Dr. Ambedkar was one of the most prominent voices supporting the empowerment of women. His first academic paper, which he presented to Alexander Goldenweiser’s anthropology seminar in May 1916, specifically addressed the position of women in India. He posited that women traditionally enjoyed a high status in ancient India, and with unerring accuracy pointed out that because of the inherent patriarchy of the Manusmriti, women in India were accorded no rights to education, property or divorce, or even of mobility. Thus, in Dr. Ambedkar’s mind, reforming the social status of women was critical in the fight against caste.

As India’s first Law Minister, Babasaheb Ambedkar spearheaded the introduction of the Hindu Code Bill, giving rights of inheritance and property ownership to women. Both he and Jawaharlal Nehru believed it was a “vital step in the introduction of true democracy in India, and would remove the practices and the logic that underpinned the caste system. To them, it was state sanctioned legality to secure the “ethical revolution” needed to implement “true democracy in India.

Fifthly, Babasaheb firmly believed that a government’s primary duty was to guarantee and deliver those conditions that would actualise fullness of life for every citizen regardless of their caste, gender, religion or class. Therefore, along with the Congress Party, he gave India the world’s oldest and farthest-reaching affirmative action programme, which guarantees equality of opportunity for all. Today this programme is hailed the world over as the most radical programme of social justice ever conceived.

This programme is specifically designed to rectify centuries of historical injustices and create a holistic future for people who have hitherto been excluded from societies. It is nothing short of State sponsored social re-engineering to establish a just and equitable society, something Dr. Ambedkar firmly believed in. He saw in the institutions of Indian democracy the best guarantee for the future development and welfare of all peoples’ in India, especially the oppressed and marginalised.

Early life

Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was born on the 14th of April, 1891 in Mhow Army Cantonment, Central Provinces (Madhya Pradesh) into a poor Mahar (Dalit) household. He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal and Bhimabai Murbadkar Sakpal, who originally hailed from Ambavade (Mandangad taluka) in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. Of the 14 children, three sons, Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao and two daughters, Manjula and Tulasa would survive beyond infancy.

Shri Sakpal, Babasaheb’s father retired as a Subedar-Major from the Indian Army in 1894, after which the family moved to Satara (also in Central Provinces) in 1896. Shortly after this, Babasaheb’s mother Bhimabai passed away. In 1900, his father remarried and the family shifted to Bombay.

Not exempted from the deplorable treatment meted out to Dalits (considered ‘untouchable’ by forward castes) at the time, Babasaheb was subjected to the vilest caste based discriminations from a young age (for understanding caste and varna, see Dr. Ambedkar’s books titled “Who Were The Shudras: How They Came To Be The Fourth Varna In The Indo-Aryan Society” and “Annihilation Of Caste”). This discrimination was most stark at all the schools young Bhimrao went to, where teachers would segregate and discriminate against untouchable students. Years later, Dr. Ambedkar would write (in his preface to “Buddha and his Dhamma”) of the humiliation he and other untouchable children had to suffer. Some of the less horrific examples include being routinely forced to sit on gunny bags outside classrooms to avoid ‘polluting’ children from forward castes or being barred from drawing water from the common well even when they were thirsty, again for fear of contamination. Such discrimination followed wherever Bhimrao went, even outside the school.

Despite this, young Bhimrao developed a zest for learning because of the impact Mr. Mahadev Ambedkar, one of his teachers, made on him. Mr. Ambedkar was so fond of young Bhimrao that he even changed his surname from ‘Ambavadekar’ (which literally translated meant hailing from Ambavade, a village in Ratnagiri) to his own surname ‘Ambedkar’ in the school records.

In the meantime, as was the societal norm, 15 year old Bhimrao married Ramabai, then aged nine in 1906. The next year, Bhimrao Ambedkar became the only one of his brothers and sisters as well as the first Dalit student to have successfully passed the matriculate examinations. Consequently, at the instance of the noted literary figure Dada Keluskar, a felicitation function was organized for Bhimrao, where Keluskar gifted him a copy of his book on Buddha’s life, written for the Baroda Sayajirao Oriental series. The principles espoused by the Buddha made a lasting impression on Ambedkar, and would go on to shape his life in a significant manner.

Four years later, he graduated in Political Science and Economics from Elphinstone College, Bombay University, where he met the reform-minded Sayajirao Gaekwad III of Baroda. Sayajirao was so impressed with Ambedkar that he offered him a job in Baroda, which he had to leave abruptly owing to his father’s ill health and eventual demise on the second of February, 1913. Keen on furthering what he considered a bright youngster, Sayajirao accordingly offered a monthly scholarship of £11.50 (sterling) per month to read at the University of Columbia in 1913. Ambedkar remained at Columbia from 1913 to 1917, and again from 1920 to 1923. Free from regressive societal norms and in an enabling environment, it was here that Ambedkar expanded his philosophical and intellectual horizons. He would tell New York Times in December 1930 that “the best friends I have had in life were some of my classmates at Columbia and my great professors, John Dewey, James Shotwell, Edwin Seligman and James Harvey Robinson”.

Ambedkar would eventually graduate from Columbia with an MA in Economics with Sociology, History, Anthropology and Philosophy as well as a PhD in Economics in 1927. In October 1916, Ambedkar enrolled for the Bar course at Gray’s Inn, and at the London School of Economics. In 1923, he completed a D.Sc. in Economics, and was called to the Bar by Gray’s Inn in the same year.

Career

Obligated to Sayajirao Gaekwad, Dr. Ambedkar worked for a short while as his Military Secretary. After quitting the position, he worked as an accountant, an investment consultant and even a private tutor for short periods of time. In 1918, he even served as a Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics in Mumbai. Unfortunately, his caste proved to be a major obstacle in most instances. Not one to be easily discouraged, Ambedkar then worked as a legal consultant. In 1926 for instance, he successfully defended three non-Brahmin activists who were being sued for charging the Brahmins of ruining India.

At the same time, Ambedkar started his social and political activism. Deposing before the Southborough Committee, which was finalizing the Government of India Act 1919, Ambedkar argued for the creation of separate electorates as well as reservations for untouchables and other religious minorities. Soon after, he started publishing the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of the Silent) in Mumbai.

Espousing the principle “Educate, Agitate and Organize”, Ambedkar went on to establish the “Bahishkirt Hitakarini Sabha” in July 1924 to promote education and culture amongst the depressed classes and to advance and improve their socio-economic conditions. This sabha would go on to establish numerous hostels for high school students belonging to the depressed classes.

In 1925, Dr. Ambedkar was appointed to the Bombay Presidency Committee to work with the Simon Commission, where he spearheaded a number of recommendations for the empowerment and upliftment of the depressed classes.

By 1927, Dr. Ambedkar has launched active campaigns against untouchability. Beginning with movements to open up public spaces for untouchables, he went on to launch struggles for the right to temple entry. He also launched the famous Mahad satyagraha to fight for the right of the untouchables to draw water from the main water tank in Raigad, Maharashtra.

On the 25th of December 1927, he led thousands of activists to publicly burn copies of the Manusmrti (Laws of Manu), because it justified untouchability and casteist discrimination.

In 1932, the colonial government proposed the institutionalization of separate electorates for the “Depressed Classes”. MK Gandhi fiercely opposed this arguing that a division of the Hindu community would absolve the forward castes of the responsibility to reform their terms of engagement with the depressed classes. He accordingly undertook a fast unto death in the Yerwada central jail. Consequently, activists such as Madan Mohan Malaviya and Palwankar Baloo conducted meetings with Dr. Ambedkar and eventually signed what has been characterized as the Poona Pact on the 25th of September 1932. Dr. Ambedkar signed as the principle representative of the depressed classes while Madan Mohan Malaviya signed as the key representative of forward castes. In stark contrast to the communal award, which was a political award meant only for 20 years, was available to Untouchables with the socially disadvantageous minority status and secured only 4.7 per cent seats in the Provincial Assemblies (71 out of 1522) and no seats in the Central assembly (Parliament), the Poona pact paved the way for proportionate number of seats in the Provincial Assembly leading to remarkably increase in seats for Scheduled castes. It also reserved 18 per cent of the seats in the central Assembly (Parliament).

The pact also initiated the overall development of the depressed classes by providing reservation of seats in services and providing funds for their education. It also declared the depressed classes eligible for contesting election in local bodies. Moreover, it laid the foundations for all the special provisions (for the empowerment of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) in the Constitution of India.

Dr. Ambedkar’s wife, Ramabai died after a long illness on the 26th of May, 1935. Deeply affected by this, Babasaheb announced at the Yeola Conversion Conference held on the 13th of October, 1935 that he would convert to a different religion. He also urged his followers to leave Hinduism because of its oppressive rules and regulations.

Between 1935 and 1937, Dr. Ambedkar served as the principal of the Government Law College, Bombay as well as the Chairperson of the governing council of Ramjas College, Delhi University.

In 1936, Dr. Ambedkar threw himself into political work, and established the Independent Labour Party. The party contested the 1937 Bombay election to the Central Legislative Assembly for the four general and the 13 reserved seats, and eventually won three and 11 seats respectively.

The same year, Dr. Ambedkar published his seminal book titled “Annihilation of Caste” on the 15th of May, 1936. He was originally supposed to deliver it as a speech at the Jat-Pat-Todak Mandal, but was unable to do so after the organizers felt it was too critical of the regressive norms within Hinduism. This book continues to be upheld as a precise rebuttal of Hindu orthodoxy and the caste system in general.

Babasaheb Ambedkar then served on the Viceroy’s Executive Council as minister for labour. He also served on the Viceroy’s Defence Advisory Committee during the same period.

On the 15th of April 1948, Dr. Ambedkar married his physician Dr. Sharada Kabir (who took the name Savita Ambedkar), who would stay by his side for the rest of his life.

Dr. Ambedkar also served as a Constituent Assembly member. Originally a member of the Constituent Assembly from Bengal, he was forced to relinquish his seat because of partition. Cognizant of this loss, the Congress Party ensured that M.R. Jayakar’s seat from Bombay went to Dr. Ambedkar, and not to G.V. Mavlankar (who went on to become independent India’s first Speaker of the Lok Sabha in 1952), as it was originally supposed to.

Recognizing his substantive body of work on caste, religion and women’s rights, the Congress Party appointed Dr. Ambedkar as the chairman of the Constituent Assembly’s drafting committee. Dr. Ambedkar subsequently worked in close collaboration with the Congress, and it is based on his directions that the party enshrined in the Constitution reservations for Dalits and Adivasis in government services, in educational institutions, and in elections (right from the panchayat and urban local bodies right up to the Lok Sabha), further extending the guarantees made in the Poona Pact of 1932.

In addition, despite vehement protests from the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the Congress Party appointed Babasaheb Ambedkar as India’s first Law Minister. One of the revolutionary things Babasaheb did was spearhead the revolutionary Hindu Code Bill, which guaranteed women the right to own property, to inheritance, to adopt children, or to divorce an abusive husband.

Unfortunately, the Hindu Code Bill faced bitter resistance from the orthodoxy on the floor of the House, including but not limited to the Hindu Mahasabha, as also the Hindu fundamentalists outside Parliament, including the RSS and others (in fact, the RSS organised 79 rallies in a single year in Delhi where effigies of Pt. Nehru and Dr. Ambedkar were publicly burnt). Dr. Ambedkar would eventually resign as Law Minister on the 27th of September, 1951, convinced that the Congress Party was not keen on passing the Hindu Code Bill. However, Pt. Nehru waited to garner the popular mandate in the first general elections of 1952, after which he successfully passed the revolutionary Hindu Code Bill as four separate bills, thus fulfilling Dr. Ambedkar’s long standing vision.

Babasaheb Ambedkar, as leader of the Scheduled Castes Federation (SCF), would go on to ally with the Praja Socialist Party in the 1952 elections. The manifesto of the SCF specifically ruled out any “alliance with any reactionary party such as Hindu Mahasabha and Jan Sangh” (the previous avatar of the Bhartiya Janata Party).

In October 1935 Dr. Ambedkar had first revealed his plan to leave the Hindu fold at the famous Yeola conference. Beginning in the 1940s, Ambedkar increasingly saw Buddhism as religion more suited to his egalitarian ideals. He travelled to Ceylon in 1950 to address a meeting of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Kandy and to Burma in December, 1954 to attend the third Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists. In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the Buddhist Society of India. His final manuscript, “The Buddha and His Dhamma”, completed in 1956, was eventually published posthumously.

Ambedkar’s conversion to Buddhism took place among his supporters at a public meeting on 14th October, 1956 in Nagpur. Along with his wife Dr. Savita Ambedkar, he accepted the Three Refuges and Five Precepts from Ven. Chandamani Mahathera, a Buddhist monk from Burma and Abbot of the Kusinagara Mahavihara, thereby formally adopting Buddhism. Along with him, 500,000 of his followers accepted Buddhism. Following the mass conversion ceremony Ambedkar travelled to Kathmandu, Nepal to attend the Fourth World Buddhist Conference.

Babasaheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar’s health took a turn for the worse during 1955. He passed away peacefully in his sleep on the sixth of December 1956 in his home at 26 Alipore Road, New Delhi.

"To be happy in the present life, one should practice the ethics of normality, non-violence (ahimsa), equality and universal brotherhood. This is an eternal truth taught by Buddha."

"Cultivation of mind should be the ultimate aim of human existence."

"If one’s education is detrimental to the welfare of the poor, the educated man is a curse to the society."

"Equality may be a fiction but nonetheless one must accept it as a governing principle."

Dr. B.R.Ambedkar Papers (1920-1954)

ACC Number: 434

National Archives, Government of India

  • Dr. Ambedkar's incomplete letter to Khase saheb on taking up cabinet berths and the need to replace Mr. Jadhav as leader of party, 18 December 1926.jpgDr. Ambedkar's incomplete letter to Khase saheb on taking up cabinet berths and the need to replace Mr. Jadhav as leader of party, 18 December 1926
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter asking Kamlakant Chitre to send help rearranging house, 23 March 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter asking Kamlakant Chitre to send help rearranging house, 23 March 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter expressing happiness at SN Shivtarkar's work, 12 May 1921.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter expressing happiness at SN Shivtarkar's work, 12 May 1921
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter requesting Dattoba Pawar to deliver a cheque urgently, 27 August 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter requesting Dattoba Pawar to deliver a cheque urgently, 27 August 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter requesting SN Shivtarkar to collect his luggage sent from Marseilles, 04 January, 1931.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter requesting SN Shivtarkar to collect his luggage sent from Marseilles, 04 January, 1931
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Baldev Prasad discussing submissions to the Simon Commission, 11 May 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Baldev Prasad discussing submissions to the Simon Commission, 11 May 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar about a land dispute in Panhala and matters related to legal practice, 21 September 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar about a land dispute in Panhala and matters related to legal practice, 21 September 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar about application for a Sanad and income tax matters, 26 September 1939.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar about application for a Sanad and income tax matters, 26 September 1939
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar apprising him of his departure from London to Germany, 15 June 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar apprising him of his departure from London to Germany, 15 June 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar apprising him of the decision to proceed with the Mahad Satyagraha, 27 February 1928.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar apprising him of the decision to proceed with the Mahad Satyagraha, 27 February 1928
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar discussing Siddharth College and other matters, 25 June 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar discussing Siddharth College and other matters, 25 June 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar discussing arrangements for his visit to Kolhapur, 01 May 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar discussing arrangements for his visit to Kolhapur, 01 May 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar discussing arrangements in Panhala, Kolhapur, 08 May 1935.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar discussing arrangements in Panhala, Kolhapur, 08 May 1935
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar discussing legal matters and apprising him of the willingness of unknown examiners to 'pull through' an unknown student, 12 June 1939.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar discussing legal matters and apprising him of the willingness of unknown examiners to 'pull through' an unknown student, 12 June 1939
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar informing him of his letter to the Subha for taking possession of land in Panhala, Kolhapur, 04 October 1937.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar informing him of his letter to the Subha for taking possession of land in Panhala, Kolhapur, 04 October 1937
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar informing him of his travel plans to Ratnagiri for a legal matter, 22 July 1938.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar informing him of his travel plans to Ratnagiri for a legal matter, 22 July 1938
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar informing of his arrival to Kolhapur, 17 January 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar informing of his arrival to Kolhapur, 17 January 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar on personal finances, 08 August 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar on personal finances, 08 August 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar regarding a criminal appeal, 06 March 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar regarding a criminal appeal, 06 March 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar regarding disinclination to take up possession of Panhala land and hesitation to appoint him as an authorised agent, 22 July 1937.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar regarding disinclination to take up possession of Panhala land and hesitation to appoint him as an authorised agent, 22 July 1937
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar regarding payment of a fruit basket, 14 May 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar regarding payment of a fruit basket, 14 May 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar requesting him to procure a book by Jotiba Phule, 12 June 1938.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar requesting him to procure a book by Jotiba Phule, 12 June 1938
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre about Gymkhana land and describing partition riots in Delhi, 13 August 1947.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre about Gymkhana land and describing partition riots in Delhi, 13 August 1947
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre about Siddharth college's library, 01 September 1950.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre about Siddharth college's library, 01 September 1950
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre asking him to resign so he could be appointed as registrar of Siddharth College, 02 April 1946.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre asking him to resign so he could be appointed as registrar of Siddharth College, 02 April 1946
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre discussing Scheduled Caste Federation's manifesto, possible alliance with Socialist Party and change in address, 21 October 1951.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre discussing Scheduled Caste Federation's manifesto, possible alliance with Socialist Party and change in address, 21 October 1951
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre discussing land for Siddharth College, 11 November 1945.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre discussing land for Siddharth College, 11 November 1945
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre on his meetings with the Governor of Bombay and the Governor General, 04 October 1949.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre on his meetings with the Governor of Bombay and the Governor General, 04 October 1949
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre regarding Siddharth College, land for gymkhana and personal matters, 31 August 1947.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre regarding Siddharth College, land for gymkhana and personal matters, 31 August 1947
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre regarding his dealings with various ministers for Siddharth College, 19 September 1949.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre regarding his dealings with various ministers for Siddharth College, 19 September 1949
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre regarding management of his election against the Congress Party's candidate, 23 October 1951.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre regarding management of his election against the Congress Party's candidate, 23 October 1951
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre regarding quotations for Siddharth college and electoral funding, presumably 1951-'52.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre regarding quotations for Siddharth college and electoral funding, presumably 1951-'52
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamlakant Chitre over controversy over speech and Siddharth college related matters, 05 May 1948.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamlakant Chitre over controversy over speech and Siddharth college related matters, 05 May 1948
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamlakant Chitre regarding settlement of personal finances and house plans in Bordi, 17 March 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamlakant Chitre regarding settlement of personal finances and house plans in Bordi, 17 March 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar about Aga Khan's noncommital response with regard to land, 29 June 1933.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar about Aga Khan's noncommital response with regard to land, 29 June 1933
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar advising caution, 29 October 1930.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar advising caution, 29 October 1930
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing Untouchability League and Janta, 10 November, 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing Untouchability League and Janta, 10 November, 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing arrival of Viceroy to India and collecting luggage sent from Thomas Cook, 15 January 1931.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing arrival of Viceroy to India and collecting luggage sent from Thomas Cook, 15 January 1931
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing coordinating with Aga Khan and strategy to be adopted at the Round Table Conference, 23 April 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing coordinating with Aga Khan and strategy to be adopted at the Round Table Conference, 23 April 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing delay in starting work until MK Gandhi's arrival for Round Table Conference, 10 September 1931.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing delay in starting work until MK Gandhi's arrival for Round Table Conference, 10 September 1931
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing his appointment on the French committee and his visit to Bombay, 06 January 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing his appointment on the French committee and his visit to Bombay, 06 January 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing his opposition to MK Gandhi's stance at Round Table Conference, 19 August 1931.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing his opposition to MK Gandhi's stance at Round Table Conference, 19 August 1931
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing his submission to the Round Table Conference on political representation for the depressed classes, 19 December 1930.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing his submission to the Round Table Conference on political representation for the depressed classes, 19 December 1930
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing how the position of the depressed classes was cemented because of his stance, 21 January 1931.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing how the position of the depressed classes was cemented because of his stance, 21 January 1931
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing inability to meet Aga Khan and on miscellaneous matters of the Round Table Conference, 25 November 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing inability to meet Aga Khan and on miscellaneous matters of the Round Table Conference, 25 November 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing insurance, 21 March 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing insurance, 21 March 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing internal dissension and need to be recognised for work, 10 February 1921.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing internal dissension and need to be recognised for work, 10 February 1921
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing legal matters, 23 January, 1930.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing legal matters, 23 January, 1930
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing others lobbying for representation to the Round Table Conference etc., 21 November 1930.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing others lobbying for representation to the Round Table Conference etc., 21 November 1930
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing pensions, and Subedar Swavdekar, 04 August 1933.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing pensions, and Subedar Swavdekar, 04 August 1933
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing problems between Mahar and Chambhar castes, 26 October 1933.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing problems between Mahar and Chambhar castes, 26 October 1933
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing purchase for three acres of land for ashram, 13 September 1933.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing purchase for three acres of land for ashram, 13 September 1933
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing state of affairs in India, 31 August 1933.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing state of affairs in India, 31 August 1933
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing strategy to tackle forward castes, 12 November 1931.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing strategy to tackle forward castes, 12 November 1931
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing the impact of his speech on the 20th of November and how it could be leveraged to further the cause, 27 November 1930.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar discussing the impact of his speech on the 20th of November and how it could be leveraged to further the cause, 27 November 1930
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar dispelling various accusations, 05 April 1924.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar dispelling various accusations, 05 April 1924
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar on his proposed meeting to solicit support from labour unions in England, undated 1930.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar on his proposed meeting to solicit support from labour unions in England, undated 1930
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar on need to arrange reception party to recive RB Srinivasan, 04 December 1931.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar on need to arrange reception party to recive RB Srinivasan, 04 December 1931
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar on need to tackle legal tussles, 29 January, 1933.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar on need to tackle legal tussles, 29 January, 1933
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar on travel plans to Germany and unhappiness about misfortunes of someone who he had been a benefactor to, 31 March 1921.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar on travel plans to Germany and unhappiness about misfortunes of someone who he had been a benefactor to, 31 March 1921
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar regarding Round Table conference and return journey, 06 December 1933.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar regarding Round Table conference and return journey, 06 December 1933
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar, 06 October 1920.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar, 06 October 1920
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar, 10 December 1930.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar, 10 December 1930
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar, 11 November 1920.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to SN Shivtarkar, 11 November 1920
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Sitaram Master discussing the emotional turmoil he faced when he realised he must relinquish Hinduism, 28 August 1922.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Sitaram Master discussing the emotional turmoil he faced when he realised he must relinquish Hinduism, 28 August 1922
  • Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Subedar Savadarkar discussing becoming a Buddhist, 13 September 1933.jpgDr. Ambedkar's letter to Subedar Savadarkar discussing becoming a Buddhist, 13 September 1933
  • Dr. Ambedkar's notes for questions to the Bombay Government on Sir Blunt's note on Depressed and Backward Classes in United Provinces, undated.jpgDr. Ambedkar's notes for questions to the Bombay Government on Sir Blunt's note on Depressed and Backward Classes in United Provinces, undated
  • Dr. Ambedkar's postcard to SN Shivtarkar, 16 October, 1931.jpgDr. Ambedkar's postcard to SN Shivtarkar, 16 October, 1931
  • Dr. Ambedkar's undated letter to Kamalakant Chitre discussing minute details about Siddharth College.jpgDr. Ambedkar's undated letter to Kamalakant Chitre discussing minute details about Siddharth College
  • Dr. Ambedkar's undated letter to SN Shivtarkar.jpgDr. Ambedkar's undated letter to SN Shivtarkar
  • Dr. Ambedkar's undelivered letter to SN Shivtarkar, 12 February, 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's undelivered letter to SN Shivtarkar, 12 February, 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's undelivered letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 28 April, 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's undelivered letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 28 April, 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's undelivered letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 30 December 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's undelivered letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 30 December 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's ungiven letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 29 January 1933.jpgDr. Ambedkar's ungiven letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 29 January 1933
  • Dr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to Bhaskar Kadrekar, 21 July 1933.jpgDr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to Bhaskar Kadrekar, 21 July 1933
  • Dr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to Bhaskar Kadrekar, 22 July 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to Bhaskar Kadrekar, 22 July 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to Dattoba Pawar questioning the latter's delay in arranging the cheque he promised, 13 September 1934.jpgDr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to Dattoba Pawar questioning the latter's delay in arranging the cheque he promised, 13 September 1934
  • Dr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 02 June 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 02 June 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 12 July 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 12 July 1932
  • Dr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 14 June 1932.jpgDr. Ambedkar's unsent letter, presumably to SN Shivtarkar, 14 June 1932
  • Dr. B.R. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar, 12 June 1929.jpgDr. B.R. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar, 12 June 1929
  • Dr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar on the change of his return travel to Bombay due to health reasons and some legal matters, 28 June 1932.jpgDr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar on the change of his return travel to Bombay due to health reasons and some legal matters, 28 June 1932
  • Dr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre about his nomination papers for electoral contest and electioneering expenses, 12 October 1953.jpgDr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre about his nomination papers for electoral contest and electioneering expenses, 12 October 1953
  • Dr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre discussing the loss of the Schedule Caste Fed. and political prospects of Socialists post the general elections, 18 January 1952.jpgDr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre discussing the loss of the Schedule Caste Fed. and political prospects of Socialists post the general elections, 18 January 1952
  • Dr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre on his travel to New York and conspiracy of silence by newspapers around it, 26 May 1952.jpgDr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre on his travel to New York and conspiracy of silence by newspapers around it, 26 May 1952
  • Dr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre reflecting on his electoral defeat and a possible run for the Council of State from the Bombay Assembly, 14 January 1952.jpgDr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre reflecting on his electoral defeat and a possible run for the Council of State from the Bombay Assembly, 14 January 1952
  • Dr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre regarding financial contribution to Socialist Party and politial support for the election of Mr. Raut, 12 December 1951.jpgDr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre regarding financial contribution to Socialist Party and politial support for the election of Mr. Raut, 12 December 1951
  • Dr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalkant Chitre on his travel to Rangoon and status of counting in the election, 15 May 1954.jpgDr. B.R.Ambedkar's letter to Kamalkant Chitre on his travel to Rangoon and status of counting in the election, 15 May 1954
  • Dr. B.R.Ambedkar's letters to his sons urging them to be safe in light of the disturbances in Bombay around Hindu Colony, 12 August 1942.jpgDr. B.R.Ambedkar's letters to his sons urging them to be safe in light of the disturbances in Bombay around Hindu Colony, 12 August 1942
  • Fragment of Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar regarding the death of his son, undated.jpgFragment of Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Dattoba Pawar regarding the death of his son, undated
  • Fragment of Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre, requesting help for research for his book 'Does the Congress represent Untouchables', 08 July 1944.jpgFragment of Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Kamalakant Chitre, requesting help for research for his book 'Does the Congress represent Untouchables', 08 July 1944
  • Fragment of Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Sitaram Master, undated.jpgFragment of Dr. Ambedkar's letter to Sitaram Master, undated
  • Fragment of Dr. Ambedkar's letter to unknown person, requesting a copy of 'An Annual Market Review', undated.jpgFragment of Dr. Ambedkar's letter to unknown person, requesting a copy of 'An Annual Market Review', undated
  • Letter, presumbly from Kamalakant Chitre to Dr. Ambedkar discussing the latter's electoral defeat and voting patterns, 14 January 1952.jpgLetter, presumbly from Kamalakant Chitre to Dr. Ambedkar discussing the latter's electoral defeat and voting patterns, 14 January 1952
  • Undated notes, with no reference.jpgUndated notes, with no reference
  • Unsigned statement by B.K Gaikwad clarifying the electoral arrangement between the Scheduled Caste Federation and the Workers and Peoples' Party.jpgUnsigned statement by B.K Gaikwad clarifying the electoral arrangement between the Scheduled Caste Federation and the Workers and Peoples' Party
  • Unsigned statement by B.K.Gaikwad on electoral alliance between the Scheduled Caste Federation, the Workers _ Peoples' Party and Socialist Party.jpgUnsigned statement by B.K.Gaikwad on electoral alliance between the Scheduled Caste Federation, the Workers _ Peoples' Party and Socialist Party